Woodcut by Ambrosius Holbein for a 1518 edition of Utopia. The lower left-hand corner shows the traveler Raphael Hythlodaeus, describing the island.
Utopia (pronounced /juːˈtoʊpiə/) is a name for an ideal community or society possessing a seemingly perfect socio–politico–legal system. The word was invented by Sir Thomas More for his 1516 book Utopia, describing a fictional island in the Atlantic Ocean. The term has been used to describe both intentional communities that attempted to create an ideal society, and fictional societies portrayed in literature. It has spawned other concepts, most prominently dystopia.
The word comes from the Greek: οὐ, “not”, and τόπος, “place”, indicating that More was utilizing the concept as allegory and did not consider such an ideal place to be realistically possible. The English homophone Eutopia, derived from the Greek εὖ, “good” or “well”, and τόπος, “place”, signifies a double meaning.
It got my historical dithers up so as to pin down points of views that may have inspired cultures to look for new lands beyond the realms of thought each society was used too, and “hoped for” in some better form.
Illustration for the 1516 first edition of Utopia.
Author Thomas More Translator Ralph Robinson
Country Seventeen Provinces, Leuven Language Latin Publication date 1516 Published in
1551 Pages 134 ISBN 978-1-907727-28-3
Utopia (in full: Libellus vere aureus, nec minus salutaris quam festivus, de optimo rei publicae statu deque nova insula Utopia) is a work of fiction by Thomas More published in 1516. English translations of the title include A Truly Golden Little Book, No Less Beneficial Than Entertaining, of the Best State of a Republic, and of the New Island Utopia (literal) and A Fruitful and Pleasant Work of the Best State of a Public Weal, and of the New Isle Called Utopia (traditional). (See “title” below.) The book, written in Latin, is a frame narrative primarily depicting a fictional island society and its religious, social and political customs.
Despite modern connotations of the word “utopia,” it is widely accepted that the society More describes in this work was not actually his own “perfect society.” Rather he wished to use the contrast between the imaginary land’s unusual political ideas and the chaotic politics of his own day as a platform from which to discuss social issues in Europe.
Why quest for new lands, planets for living?
Bacon’s Utopia: The New Atlantis
In 1623 Bacon expressed his aspirations and ideals in The New Atlantis. Released in 1627, this was his creation of an ideal land where “generosity and enlightenment, dignity and splendor, piety and public spirit” were the commonly held qualities of the inhabitants of Bensalem. In this work, he portrayed a vision of the future of human discovery and knowledge. The plan and organization of his ideal college, “Solomon’s House”, envisioned the modern research university in both applied and pure science.
What contributions were idealistic set before those who signed the documents that one would have found reference from Raphael toward the Stanza’s of the signatore’s room in Rome?
The Room of the Segnatura contains Raphael’s most famous frescoes. Besides being the first work executed by the great artist in the Vatican they mark the beginning of the high Renaissance. The room takes its name from the highest court of the Holy See, the “Segnatura Gratiae et Iustitiae”, which was presided over by the pontiff and used to meet in this room around the middle of the 16th century. Originally the room was used by Julius II (pontiff from 1503 to 1513) as a library and private office. The iconographic programme of the frescoes, which were painted between 1508 and 1511, is related to this function. See Raphael Rooms
You had to understand the setting and the historical drama set forth?
In center, while Plato – with the philosophy of the ideas and theoretical models, he indicates the sky, Aristotle – considered the father of Science, with the philosophy of the forms and the observation of the nature indicates the Earth. Many historians of the Art in the face correspondence of Plato with Leonardo, Heraclitus with Miguel Angel, and Euclides with Twine agree.
So to set this up some background was needed?
Plato and Aristotle, Up and Down by Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.
However, when it comes to ethics and politics, the gestures should be reversed. Plato, like Socrates, believed that to do the good without error, one must know what the good is. Thus, we get the dramatic moment in the Republic where Plato says that philosophers, who have escaped from the Cave and come to understand the higher reality, must be forced to return to this world and rule, so that their wisdom can benefit the state. Aristotle, on the other hand, says that the “good” is simply the goal of various particular activities, without one meaning in Plato’s sense. The particular activities of most human affairs involve phronésis, “practical wisdom.” This is not sophía, true wisdom, for Aristotle, which involves the theoretical knowledge of the highest things, i.e. the gods, the heavens, and God.
Thus, for philosophy, Aristotle should point up and would represent a contemplative attitude that was certainly more congenial to religious practices in the Middle Ages. By the same token, Aristotle’s contribution to what we now think of as science was hampered by his lack of interest in mathematics. Although Aristotle in general had a more empirical and experimental attitude than Plato, modern science did not come into its own until Plato’s Pythagorean confidence in the mathematical nature of the world returned with Kepler, Galileo, and Newton. For instance, Aristotle, relying on a theory of opposites that is now only of historical interest, rejected Plato’s attempt to match the Platonic Solids with the elements — while Plato’s expectations are realized in mineralogy and crystallography, where the Platonic Solids occur naturally.
Therefore, caution is in order when comparing the meaning of the metaphysics of Plato and Aristotle with its significance for their attitudes towards ethics, politics, and science. Indeed, if the opposite of wisdom is, not ignorance, but folly, then Socrates and Plato certainly started off with the better insight.
Hope I didn’t bore you with precursors of “new thoughts of how differing societies were formed? How one may of attained such insight by helping one to realize the choice we have about how those new societies may have inspired?
Of course, “a science” evolved from it all?