“According to modern understanding, even if all matter could be removed from a volume, it would still not be “empty” due to vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, transiting gamma- and cosmic rays, neutrinos, along with other phenomena in quantum physics. In modern particle physics, the vacuum state is considered as the ground state of matter.” See: Vacuum
Bold added by me for emphasis.
While covering long distances(cosmic particles) what is examined that differences could have been determined in AMSII Calorimeter devices have been implored to be defined in configuration spaces. See Glast/Fermi. Use of calorimeter devices against the backdrop of LHC.
When cosmic particle meet earth’s boundary with space, forward faster then light effects are generated. It is important to me that space be given it proper context in relation too, what is actually being transmitted across distances. Speed of light is medium dependent. So energy depenence value is necessary for those forward measure faster then light measure, exemplified in ICECUBE.
The idea then, that these space fluctuation as vacua are in expression and are sensitive aside what else is also being transmitted across those long distances. This, in relation with cosmic particles that were also created in events.
The most important thing is to be motivated by your own intellectual curiosity.
|Dr. Kip Thorne, Caltech 01-Relativity-The First 20th Century Revolution|
In my mind Kip Thorne’s determinations as to the length of measure and value of LiGO arms, also seen as beam of light very sensitive to those vacuum fluctuations.
Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1–4 is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity. A fundamental limit to the sensitivitySee: Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of lightPUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 JULY 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.177