The color represents the strength of the polarized signal seen by WMAP – red strong/blue weak. The signal seen in these maps comes mostly from our Galaxy. It is strongest at 23 GHz, weakest at 61 and 94 GHz.
This multi-frequency data is used to subtract the Galactic signal and produce the CMB map shown (top of this page). These images show a temperature range of 50 microKelvin.
It is essential that while we are looking at this universe we understand the makeup and how it is being expressed. We also understand that while we knew the uiverse had to have it’s motivation for that expression, it had to have other states of existance as well. This is related to the curvatures parameters and how differing times in the universe’s expression this curvature had to be considered. These curvatures at one time in the whole context, as some cosmological constant varied, not seem relevant to the state of the universe?
So you have to explain it. Some may think I am less then desired in my understanding of General relativity, but you can be certain that understand Einstein’s work in finding the “geometry of expression” was critical in understanding the “nature of gravity.”
The idea behind the Coleman-De Luccia instanton, discovered in 1987, is that the matter in the early universe is initially in a state known as a false vacuum. A false vacuum is a classically stable excited state which is quantum mechanically unstable. In the quantum theory, matter which is in a false vacuum may `tunnel’ to its true vacuum state. The quantum tunnelling of the matter in the early universe was described by Coleman and De Luccia. They showed that false vacuum decay proceeds via the nucleation of bubbles in the false vacuum. Inside each bubble the matter has tunnelled. Surprisingly, the interior of such a bubble is an infinite open universe in which inflation may occur. The cosmological instanton describing the creation of an open universe via this bubble nucleation is known as a Coleman-De Luccia instanton.
See more on this here
So by seeing this dynamical nature expressed did not mean you discounted how this universe was acting at various times to become what it is today. You had to find processes that would speak to this,and by defining the continuity of geometrical expression it was important to define this false vacuum in relation towhat the universe was doing as it unfolded itself and from strong curvature parameters settled itself to where it is today.
Did the universe have a negative density value relation that one could interpret? So you have to explain this as well in relation to what contributed ot the universe speeding up or slowing down. What local events within the cosmos could contribute to the universe in it’s total expression?
Gravity in the microseconds
Never mind Steven Weinberg’s First Three mintes.
The amount of dark matter and energy in the universe plays a crucial role in determining the geometry of space. If the density of matter and energy in the universe is less than the critical density, then space is open and negatively curved like the surface of a saddle See my post on this here
While we talk about the universe I understand that there are “curvature parameters” that can be expressed, at any given time “within context of the whole universe.” We had somehow forgotten these events as local expressions of galaxies “may contribute to the larger picture?”
The possibility that enormously large galaxies originated from tiny quantum fluctuations may seem too strange to be true. But many aspects of inflationary theory were confirmed by recent astronomical observations, for which the observers won the Nobel Prize in 2006. This gives some credence to an even more surprising claim made by Linde: During inflation, quantum fluctuations can produce not only galaxies, but also new parts of the universe.
Take an expanding universe with its little pockets of heterogeneous quantum events. At some point one of those random events may actually “escape” from its parent universe, forming a new one, Linde said. To use the ball analogy, if it experiences small perturbations as it rolls, it might at some point roll over into the next valley, initiating a new inflationary process, he said.
“The string theorists predict that there are perhaps 101000 different types of universes that can be formed that way,” Linde said. “I had known that there must be many different kinds of universes with different physical properties, but this huge number of different possibilities was an unexpected gift of string theory.”
According to string theory, there are 10 dimensions. We live aware of four of them—three of space plus one of time. The rest are so small that we cannot experience them directly. In 2003, Stanford physicists Shamit Kachru, Renata Kallosh and Linde, with their collaborator Sandip Trivedi from India, discovered that these compacted dimensions want to expand, but that the time it would take for them to do so is beyond human comprehension. When a new universe buds off from its parent, the configuration of which dimensions remain small and which grow large determines the physical laws of that universe. In other words, an infinite number of worlds could exist with 101000 different types of physical laws operating among them. Susskind called this picture “the string theory landscape.”
For many physicists, it is disturbing to think that the very laws and properties that are the essence of our world might only hold true as long as we remain in that world. “We always wanted to discover the theory of everything that would explain the unique properties of our world, and now we must adjust to the thought that many different worlds are possible,” Linde said. But he sees an advantage in what some others could see a problem: “We finally learned that inflationary universe is not just a free lunch: It is an eternal feast where all possible dishes are served.”
I have been waiting I guess until the appropriate time that I could bring Q9’s link of Linde’s here for comparison, to what one may think of the landscape. You had to include all the information before this comment to know that what I am talking about has it’s relation in the Anthropic Principle.
See info on String Theory Landscape
The title above is taken from Lee Smolin’s paragraph listed below. Why I am using it will be come clear after a time in this post. I am working all night because of the duties of life, so I’ll have to come back to it tomorrow. I am barely await has a continue to compile the data necessary for understanding the way I see this universe.
Lee continues on in another forum and is linked to paragraph below.
I should also emphasize that while the book is not an attack on string theory in general it is very definitely an attack on a point of view about string theory that some, but not all, string theorists have adopted. This includes the arguments that the anthropic principle can yielded falsifiable predictions-which have been shown to be fallacious, and the argument that was made by several string theorists that a theory need not give falsifiable predictions for doable experiments to be believed. My book takes a strong stance against this point of view. I am confident here of my reasons, especially given that already in my first book the possibility of an anthropic solution to the landscape problem was considered and rejected. I am glad to know that my view on this is shared by some string theorists such as Brian Greene but not so happy that a number of very smart string theorists continue to believe that some version of the AP may still be useful.
<a href="http://www.etsu.edu/physics/plntrm/relat/curv.htm" target=_Blank title="Relativity and Black Holes
Curvature and Geometry”>A circle of radius r has a curvature of size 1/r. Therefore, small circles have large curvature and large circles have small curvature. The curvature of a line is 0. In general, an object with zero curvature is “flat.”
The value of the circle in relation to gravity is important to recognize, in that this value of the universe can be different based on what “critical density” in relation to Omega
In order for one to be concerned about the current state of the universe, it is essential that one realizes it’s condition “before it became the way it is?” It’s value in relation to the circle.
The big bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, with subsequent annihilation leaving neither behind. And yet, the observable universe has about ten billion galaxies that consist entirely of matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons) with no antimatter (antiprotons, antineutrons, and positrons). Very soon after the big bang, some forces must have caused the CP violation that skewed the equality in the number of matter and antimatter particles and left behind excess matter.
So while we get this sense here of the hills and valleys, what said that the current system had not taken into consideration the sombrero? The effects of gravity when it was once strong, and now is weak. We still get this sense of the universe doing things.