Neuroscience hypothesizes that consciousness is generated by the inter-operation of various parts of the brain, called the neural correlates of consciousness or NCC, though there are challenges to that perspective. Proponents of Artificial consciousness (AC)believe it is possible to construct systems (e.g., computer systems) that can emulate this NCC interoperation.
Can you imagine what the one computer your sitting in front of is connected too? Frankenly, it would have consciousness?
Upon hearing this, one might be inclined to ask, “If a computer can’t be conscious, then how can a brain?” After all, it is a purely physical object that works according to physical law. It even uses electrical activity to process information, just like a computer. Yet somehow we experience the world subjectively—from a first person perspective where inner, qualitative and ineffable sensations occur that are only accessible to us. Take for example the way it feels when you see a pretty girl, drink a beer, step on a nail, or hear a moody orchestra.
The truth is, scientists are still trying to figure all this out. How physical phenomena, like biochemical and electrical processes, create sensation and unified experience is known as the “Hard Problem of Consciousness”, and is widely recognized by neuroscientists and philosophers. Even neuroscientist and popular author Sam Harris—who shares Musk’s robot-rebellion concerns—acknowledges the hard problem when stating that whether a machine could be conscious is “an open question”. Unfortunately he doesn’t seem to fully realize that for machines to pose an existential threat arising from their own self-interests, conscious is required. See: Why Digital Computers Can’t Have Consciousness By Bobby Azarian